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Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a landlocked country of South-Central Asia. The country extends about 600 miles (970 km) from north to south and about 800 miles (1,300 km) from east to west, including the very narrow Wakhan, a corridor of 150 miles (241 km) long connecting Afghanistan with China. Afghanistan is also bordered on the south and southeast by Pakistan, on the west by Iran, and on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. Its total area is 652, 900 square km.

Afghan people are of Pashtun, Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazaras ancestries. The Pashtuns mainly inhabit the southern and eastern parts of the country. Most Pashtuns are sedentary. The Tajiks, mostly farmers and artisans, live predominantly in the northeast and in the west of Herat. The Uzbeks are mainly farmers living north of the Hindu Kush. The Hazaras are nomads who inhabit the central mountains. The Country has a relatively young population; 46 percent are less than 15 years of age.

After the overthrow of the Taliban in November, 2001, an Afghan Interim Authority under the Chairmanship of Mr. Hamid Karzai, along with 21 member cabinet was formed on December 22, 2001 for a period of 6-month under the auspices of United Nations. An Assembly of Afghan tribal leaders and representatives held the Loya Jirga in June 2002 and approved new government, to rule Afghanistan for next 18 months. The new government was called the Islamic Transitional Government of Afghanistan (ITGA) broadly representative of the ethnic, geographic, and religious composition of Afghanistan including women. The Transitional Governmental was meant to establish institutions in Afghanistan. H.E. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai is the current President of the National Unity Government (2014) where H.E. Dr. Abdullah Abdullah is the Chief Executive Officer.

The official languages of the country are Pashtu and Dari, both Indo-European languages. Pashtu is spoken by about half the population. Dari is the language of about a third of the population-mainly the Tajik, Hazara and Kizilbash people. More than four-fifths of Afghanistan's population is rural, and nearly one fifth of the country's population is nomadic.

Natural resources of Afghanistan include the natural gas, with large reserves near Sheberghan in Jowzjan province, near the Turkmen border, about 75 miles west of Mazar-e-Sharif.The Khwajeh Gugerdak and Yatim Taq fields are major producers, with storage and refining facilities. Pipelines deliver natural gas to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and to a thermal power plant and chemical fertilizer plant in Mazar-e-Sharif. Petroleum resources have proved to be insignificant. Many coal deposits have been found in the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush. Major coalfields are at Karkar and Eshposhteh, in Baghlan province, and Fort Sarkari, in Balkh province.

Summary Statistics

Region in the United Nations

   

Southern Asia

Surface area (sq km)

   

652,864

Population (2016)

   

33,370,000

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

 

51.1

Capital city

   

Kabul

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

 

4,635,000

Currency

2015

 

Afghani (AFN)

ECO membership date

   

28 November 1992



Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

3.0

Urban population (%)

2015

26.7

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

4.0

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

5.1

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

61.1/58.7

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

87

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

382,400/1.2

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

1,421,419

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

71

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

8.2

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.)

2013

0.3

Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

4.8

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

91.8/130.7

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

39.7/70.8

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

3.7/13.3

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

6.6

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

27.7

 

Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran, as the world's 17th largest country, is located in an area of 1,648,196 sq. km in the South-West Asia. The Country is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, the Caspian Sea, Armenia and Republic of Azerbaijan, on the east by Pakistan and Afghanistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and on the west by Turkey and Iraq. One of the main geographical characteristics of Iran is it's climatic specialty, meaning that four seasons temperature may be seen simultaneously in different parts of the Country.

Diverse geographical conditions, as well as the long historical heritage have played an important role in shaping the Iranian society and culture. Even though the Country is rapidly moving toward a modern industrial era, yet the rich traditional, religious and ethnic values of the people have remained intact. More than 61 percent of the country's population live in the urban areas and mostly work in business and industrial fields.

The official language of Iran is Persian. However, a number of other languages and dialects such as Azeri, Kurdish, Luri, Balouchi and Arabic are also spoken in some regions.

The vast majority of Iranians are Muslims, mostly of the Shi'i. Zoroastrians, Christians of Indo-European linguistic identity and the Jews are the religious minorities of Iran.

According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, adopted in 1979, and amended in 1989, the structure of the government consists of legislative, judicial and executive powers, which function separately. Meanwhile the powers are supervised by a Supreme Religious Leader (Valie-Faghih), who is elected by the Assembly of Leadership Experts. The Islamic Consultative Assembly is the law making organ and its members are elected for a 4 year term by popular vote. The laws adopted by this Assembly are enforced after being approved by the Council of Guardians to determine their constitutionality and conformity to Islam.

The Executive power is headed by the President, who is elected for a 4-year term through direct popular vote. The current President is H.E. Mr. Hassan Rouhani (re-elected for another 4 years as of 2017). The President, Vice Presidents and Ministers constitute the Cabinet. The Ministers obtain the vote of confidence from the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Being appointed by the Leader, the Head of the Judicial Power is the highest judicial authority. He nominates the Minister of Justice to the President as a member of Cabinet.

About one-eighth of the country is forested, mostly near the Caspian Sea, with oak, beech, linden, elm, and a few broad-leafed evergreens. The abundant wildlife of the country includes wolves, foxes, leopards, lynx, gazelles, and deer as well as goats and sheep.

 
Summary Statistics

Region in UN

 

Southern Asia

 

Surface area (sq km)

 

1628750

Land area only

Population (proj., 000)

2016

80043

 

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

49.2

 

Capital city

 

Tehran

 

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

8432

 

Currency

 

Iranian Rial (IRR)

 

ECO membership date

  1964 (RCD)  
Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.3

Urban population (%)

2015

73.4

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

2.1

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

1.8

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

76.2/74.0

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

40

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

2726.4/3.5

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

4967

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

979491

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

15

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

6.9

Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

3.0

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

111.6/106.9

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

87.9/88.9

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

63.6/68.2

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

4.8

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

3.1

Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Islamic Republic of Pakistan is Asia's seventh largest country, occupying the northwestern portion of South Asia. It covers an area of 796,095 square km. The Country extends for more than 1,600 km from south to north and for about 880 km from west to east. It is bounded to the west by Iran, to the north by Afghanistan, to the northeast by China, to the east and southeast by India, and to the south by the Arabian Sea.

Pakistan's population is a complex mixture of indigenous peoples. The population's ethnic composition has been affected by successive waves of Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Pashtuns (Pathans), and Mughals coming from the northwest. Arabs have also left their mark on the population. Each of Pakistan's languages has a strong regional focus, and no single language can be said to be common to the whole population. The predominant linguistic group in Pakistan is Punjabi (more than one-half of the population); others include Pashtu (one-eighth), Sindhi (one-eighth), Saraiki (one-tenth), Urdu, and Baluchi. In addition, there are 4 million refugees from Afghanistan. Urdu is the lingua franca and is the national language of the Country. Almost 95% of the population is Muslim. Hindus and Christians and others make up the remaining 5% of the population.

The President is the Head of State and is elected for a period of five years by the Federal Parliament and Provincial Assemblies. The current President is H.E. Mamnoon Hussain. The National Assembly has a total of 342 members, including 60 seats reserved for women and 10 for non-Muslims, as per article 51 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The seats in the National Assembly are allocated to each Province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the Federal Capital on the basis of population. The Upper House/Senate was first formed in 1973. The membership of the Senate, which was originally 45, was raised to 63 in 1977 and to 87 in 1985 and to 100 in 2002. The membership of the senate was raised from 100 to 104 in 2012. Of these 104 seats 22 seats are allocated for each province (fourteen general, four technocrats/Ulema and four women), four seats for Federal area, (two general, one technocrat/Aalim and one woman) and eight seats for FATA. The four seats added to the Senate in 2012 are allocated to for minorities, one from each province.

The Prime Minister is the Head of the Government and is elected by the National Assembly for a five year term. The current Prime Minister is H.E. Mr. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif.

Pakistan’s judicial system is headed by the Supreme Court, and each province has a high court. The Federal Shariat Court, a court of Islamic law (Shari’a) was set up in the 1980s.

Pakistan has a developing mixed economy based largely on agriculture, light industries, and services. The Government has placed special emphasis on the liberalization and privatization of the economy since 1990. The Gross National Product (GNP) is increasing more rapidly than the population, but the GNP per capita is among the lowest in Asia, albeit the highest in South Asia. Agriculture accounts for approximately one-fourth of the GDP and employs about 46 per cent of the labor force. Wheat is the chief staple, and sugarcane is widely grown. Cotton and rice are major export crops. Manufacturing accounts for approximately one-fifth of the GDP and employs one-eighth of the labor force. Textiles, particularly cotton textiles, are the chief manufacture and are a leading export. Mining, which is largely controlled by the government, accounts for about 0.4 percent of the GDP. Coal and iron ore (both of which are mostly low-grade), some petroleum, and substantial quantities of natural gas are extracted. Limestone, chromite, and gypsum are widely mined.

 

Summary Statistics

 

Region in UN

 

Southern Asia

 

Surface area (sq km)

 

796095

 

Population (proj., 000)

2016

192827

 

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

250.1

 

Capital city

 

Islamabad

 

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

1365

 

Currency

 

Pakistan Rupee (PKR)

 

ECO membership date

 

 

 
 
 


Social indicators
 
 

 

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

2.1

 

Urban population (%)

2015

38.8

 

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

2.8

 

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

3.7

 

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

66.8/65.0

 

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

65

 

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

3629.0/1.9

 

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

966

2012

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

3439965

 

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

70

 

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

2.6

 

Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

2.5

 

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

85.8/100.7

 

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

36.6/46.3

 

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

10.7/10.1

 

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

7.8

2012

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

20.6

 
 

Kyrgyz Republic

The Kyrgyz Republic is bounded by Kazakhstan on the northwest and north, by China on the east and south, and by Tajikistan and Uzbekistan on the south and west. Most of Kyrgyzstan’s borders run along mountain crests. The mountains stand in the core of the Tien Shan system, which continues eastward to China. To the southwest are two great valleys. The Country’s area totals approximately 199, 900 square kilometers. The Kyrgyz, a Turkic-speaking people, constitute more than half of the population. They speak a language belonging to the north-western or Kipchak group of the Turkic languages. They were formerly a nomadic people who were settled into collectivized agriculture by the Soviet regime. Besides Kyrgyz, the Country’s population includes minorities of Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, and Germans (exiled to the region from European parts of the Soviet Union in 1941), as well as Tatars, Kazakhs, Dungans (Hui; Chinese Muslims), Uighurs, and Tajiks. Since independence in 1991, many Russians and Germans have emigrated.

Kyrgyzstan’s 1993 Constitution, which replaced the Soviet-era Constitution that had been in effect since 1978, recognizes numerous rights and freedoms for citizens. It establishes legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government but gives the President, who is the Head of State, the ability to implement important policies or constitutional amendments through a national referendum. The current President is H.E Mr. Almazbek Atambayev.

The new Constitution originally created a unicameral parliament, but in 1994 voters approved a bicameral legislature, with a lower chamber (the legislative Assembly) consisting of 35 nationally elected deputies and an upper chamber (the Assembly of People’s Representatives) consisting of 70 regionally elected, part-time members. The President, elected directly for a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms, appoints the Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and members of the high courts, subject to approval by the parliament. The President also appoints the administrators of Kyrgyzstan’s six oblastes (provinces). The judicial branch includes local courts and three high courts: the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Court of Higher Arbitration.

The people of Kyrgyzstan have traditionally raised livestock and engaged in farming. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products and exports. By the late 20th century the Republic had become a source for nonferrous metals, notably of antimony and mercury ores, and a producer of machinery, light industrial products, hydroelectric power, and food products. Gold mining has increased in importance, and Kyrgyzstan possesses substantial coal reserves and some petroleum and natural gas deposits. Hydroelectric power provides more than three-fourths of the country’s electric energy.

Kyrgyzstan has been one of the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in carrying out market reforms. More than half of government stock in enterprises has been sold. The share of private sector activity in Gross Value Added increased from 13% in 1994 to 35% in 1997. Drops in production have been severe since the breakup of the Soviet Union. During 1996 for the first time there was an achievement of 5.6% of GDP growth. Moreover, the real growth of GDP in 1997 has been fixed at the 6.2% level.

Summary Statistics
 

Region in UN

 

Central Asia

Surface area (sq km)

 

199949

Population (proj., 000)

2016

6034

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

31.5

Capital city

 

Bishkek

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

865

Currency

 

Som (KGS)

ECO membership date

 

28 November 1992



Social indicators

 

 

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.7

Urban population (%)

2015

35.7

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.6

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

3.1

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

74.3/66.4

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

55

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

204.4/3.4

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

2849

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

14279

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

20

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

6.5

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.)

2013

2.0

Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

6.8

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

107.0/108.3

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

91.2/90.4

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

52.1/39.9

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

3.7

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

19.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic of Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan is situated at the crossroads of East and West and has the territory of 86,600 square kilometers. It’s bordered on by the Caucasus mountain range in the north, the Caspian Sea in the east, Georgia and Armenia in the west, the Russian Federation in the north, Iran in the south and Turkey in the south-west. Republic of Azerbaijan is a democratic, constitutional, secular and unitary Republic. H.E. Mr. Ilham Aliyev is the current President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. President is a Head of State and is elected by direct election for five year term. State power is based on the principle of division of powers. The three branches of power include: Executive headed by the president (5 year term); Legislative: unicameral national assembly (milli majlis) with 125 deputies (5 year term); Judiciary headed by the supreme court of the Republic.

Azerbaijan is the fastest growing economy worldwide. Following sharp decline in early 90’s of the last century Azerbaijan achieved stable and rapid growth for 12 consecutive years starting from 1999. Now the country is one of the most rapidly developing economies in the world. Despite world economic crisis, GDP indicator continued to grow in 2008-2010 in average by 7%. The nominal GDP in 2011 totaled 63.6 mln. USD, while nominal wages grew by 9.5%. Almost all other major economic indicators point out a similar growth pattern.

Baku is the centre of Azerbaijani economy and the home for most of Azerbaijan's 3,500 industrial enterprises, petroleum extraction and refining, metallurgy, aluminum processing, petrochemicals, chemical production are located in the city and its satellites. Baku is also strong in services including banks, hotels & restaurants and logistics. Sumgayit production is concentrated on chemical and petrochemical production, textiles, and aluminum smelting; Ganja is the home to an aluminum refinery and also specializes in textiles, machine building and metallurgy.

Summary Statistics

Region in the UN

 

Western Asia

 

Surface area (sq km)

 

86600

 

Population

2016

9,868,000

Including Nagorno-Karabakh.

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

119.4

Including Nagorno-Karabakh.

Capital city

 

Baku

 

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

2,374,

000

Currency

 

Manat (AZN)

 

ECO membership date

 

28 November 1992

 


Social indicators

Republic of Kazakhstan

The Republic of Kazakhstan is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and the Aral Sea; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan's 2,717,600 square kilometers make it by far the largest state in Central Asia and the ninth largest in the world.
The Kazakhs are Muslim who speak a Turkic language of the Northwest or Kipchak group. Fewer than one-fifth of the more than eight million ethnic Kazakhs live outside Kazakhstan, mainly in Uzbekistan and Russia. During the l9th century about 400,000 Russians flooded into Kazakhstan, and these were supplemented by about 1,000,000 Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others who immigrated to the region during the first third of the 20th century. The immigrants crowded Kazakhs off the best pastures and watered lands, rendering many tribes destitute. Another large influx of Slavs occurred from 1954 to 1956 as a result of the Virgin and Idle Lands project, initiated by the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, himself a Slav. This project drew thousands of Russians and Ukrainians into the rich agricultural lands of northern Kazakhstan.
In the early years of independence, a significant number of ethnic Russians in Kazakhstan emigrated to Russia. This emigration, along with a return to the country of ethnic Kazakhs, changed the demographic makeup of Kazakhstan: by the mid-1990s the Kazakh proportion was approaching half the total population, while that for the Russians was closer to one-third.
Kazakhstan's first post-independence Constitution was adopted in 1993, replacing the Soviet-era Constitution that had been in force since 1978. A new Constitution was approved in 1995. The 1995 Constitution provided for legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government dominated by strong executive. The 1995 Constitution established a bicameral legislature consisting of a Senate and an Assembly (Mazhlis). Working jointly, the two chambers have the authority to amend the Constitution, approve the budget, confirm presidential appointees, ratify treaties, declare war, and delegate legislative authority to the President for up to one year. Each chamber also has exclusive powers.
The President is the Head of State and is elected directly for a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. The President appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers of the cabinet, as well as the chairperson of the National Security Committee. The President also appoints the heads of the local government entities, can reverse decisions made by these officials, and has broad authority to issue decrees and overrule actions taken by the ministries. The current President is H.E. Mr. Nursultan Nazarbaev.
The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court. There is also a number of lower courts; a Constitutional Council, the members of which are appointed by the President and legislature, reviews constitutional questions. Judges serve life terms and are appointed by the President, those of the Supreme Court are also subject to confirmation by the legislature.
Kazakhstan's great mineral resources and arable lands have long aroused the envy of outsiders. Among the most important minerals are copper in the central areas and in Aqtebe (Aktyubinsk) province; lead, zinc, and silver in the Rudnyy Altai area and the Dzungarian Alatau and Qaratau (Karatau) spurs; tungsten and tin in the Kolbin Ridge and southern Altai; chromites, nickel, and cobalt in the Mugozhar Hills; titanium, manganese, and antimony in the central regions; vanadium in the south; and gold in the north and east. In 1993 Kazakhstan finalized a contract with the Chevron Corporation to exploit the reserves of the Tengiz oil field, one of the world's largest. In the mid-1990s agreements also were sought with foreign investors for the development of oil and natural gas from the Tengiz, Zhusan, Temir, and Karachaganak wells. The profitability of such ventures rested principally on the establishment of new pipelines.  

 

 

Summary Statistics

 

 Region in UN

2015

Central Asia

 

Surface area (sq km)

2014

2724902

 

Population (proj., 000)

2016

17855

 

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

6.6

 

Capital city

2015

Astana

 

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

759

 

Currency

2015

Tenge (KZT)

 

ECO membership date

2013

28 November 1992

 
 

 

 



Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.6

 

Urban population (%)

2015

53.2

 

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

0.9

 

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

2.6

 

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

73.9/64.3

 

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

50

 

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

3546.8/20.1

 

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

4560

 

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

7849

 

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

14

 

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

4.4

 

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.)

2013

3.6

 

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

111.3/111.4

 

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

106.8/104.2

 

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

54.2/42.9

 

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

7.4

2013

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

26.2

 

Republic of Tajikistan

epublic of Tajikistan lies in the heart of Central Asia and is bordered by Kyrgyzstan on the north, China on the east, Afghanistan on the south, and Uzbekistan on the west and northwest. The territory of the country is 143,100 square km. Tajikistan encompasses the smallest amount of land among the five Central Asian States, but in terms of elevation it surpasses them all, enclosing more and higher mountains than any other country in the region.

The population of Tajikistan is 8.670 million people. The Country is inhabited by the representatives of over 70 nationalities, the majority of them is the Tajiks (64%), followed by Uzbeks (25%), Russians (3.5%), others (6.6%). The official language is Tajik. By creed the majority of people is Muslim-Sunni (80%), Shi'i (5%) and others (15%). The literacy rate of the population is 98% with that of men (99%) and women (97%).

In 1994 voters approved a new Constitution to replace the Soviet-era constitution that had been in effect since 1978 and amended after independence by referendum. The new Constitution establishes legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Unique among Central Asian Republics, Tajikistan's Constitution provides for a strong legislature rather than a dominant executive; though the President is Head of State. The current President is H.E. Mr. Emomali Rahman. Members of the legislature, a unicameral National Assembly, are elected for five-year term. The legislature has the authority to enact and annul laws, interpret the constitution, and confirm presidential appointees. The President is elected directly for a maximum of two five-year terms and appoints the Cabinet of Ministers including the Prime Minister and high court justices, subject to approval by the legislature. The highest courts include the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Economic Court (for commercial cases), and a Court of Gorno-Badakhshan, which has jurisdiction over the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region.

The Tajik economy was seriously weakened by the civil war of 1992-97. Due to that, Tajikistan showed the next-to-lowest per capita GDP in the former USSR Republics. Agriculture dominates the economy, with cotton being the most important crop. Industry is represented by a large aluminum plant, gold-processing plant, carpet-making factory and mining plant, hydro power facilities and factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The continuous transition of the Tajik national economy to the market-oriented policies made it possible to start attracting foreign investments and to set up joint ventures, some of which are large scale enterprises with the investments over $ 30 million.

Tajikistan possesses rich mineral deposits. Important metallic ores are silver, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, mercury, gold, tin, and tungsten. Non-metallic minerals include common salt, carbonates, quartz sand and precious and semi-precious stones. Energy resources include sizeable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum. The hydro-power is significant. Mountain rivers allow at a relatively low cost to build and operate medium and large size hydro-power stations which could meet the energy requirements not only of Tajikistan but most of the ECO region.

Summary Statistics

Region in UN

 

Central Asia

Surface area (sq km)

 

142600

Population (proj., 000)

2016

8670

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

61.9

Capital city

 

Dushanbe

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

822

Currency

 

Somoni (TJS)

ECO membership date

 

28 November 1992



Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

2.2

Urban population (%)

2015

26.8

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

2.6

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

3.6

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

72.8/65.9

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

61

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

275.1/3.2

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

213

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

11943

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

40

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

6.9

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.)

2013

1.9

Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

4.0

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

97.1/97.5

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

83.1/92.5

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

18.4/30.4

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

1.4

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

19.0

Republic of Turkey

 The lands of Turkey are located at a point where the three continents making up the old world. Asia, Africa and Europe are closest to each other and straddle the point where Europe and Asia meet. Geographically, the Country is located in the northern half of the hemisphere at a point that is about halfway between the equator and the north pole, at a longitude of 36 degrees N to 42 degrees N and latitude of 26 degrees E to 45 degrees E. Turkey is roughly rectangular in shape and is 1,660 kilometers long and 550 kilometers wide. Because of its geographical location, the mainland of Anatolia has always found favour throughout history and is the birthplace of many great civilizations. It has also been prominent as a center of commerce because of its land connections to three continents and the sea surrounding it on three sides.

The area of Turkey is 774,815 square kilometers. The actual land border length of Turkey is 2,875 kilometers in total and coastlines (including islands) are another 8,333 kilometers. Turkey has two European and six Asian countries as neighbors along its land borders.

Turkey has been a melting pot of ethnically and culturally distinct groups since early prehistoric times. The most decisive influence was the incursion of Turkic peoples from the east from the 2nd century AD onward. Turkish is the mother tongue of about nine-tenths of the Country's population. Lausanne Treaty recognizes Armenians, Greek Orthodox and Jews as minorities. Nearly all Turks are Muslims, and the Sunni is predominant. Turkey's population increased rapidly after World War II, but the rate of growth declined by the end of the 20th century.

The Turkish Republic, founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, was a one-party state until 1946. Since then many parties have contested for power, and Turkey has had a civilian parliamentary government most of the time. The 1982 Constitution, amended in 1987 and 1995, provides for a democratic parliamentary system of government. Under the Constitution, the Head of State is the President, who is elected to a non-renewable seven-year term by the Turkish Grand National Assembly (the national parliament). H.E. Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the current President of Republic of Turkey. The 550 members of the Assembly are elected for a five-year term by direct popular vote. The President appoints a Prime Minister who forms the Government which is invested by a vote of confidence by the parliament.

Turkey's developing economy is part private and part publicly owned; the industrial sector now predominate over agriculture. The economy underwent a sustained expansion during the second half of the 20th century. It has become increasingly integrated into the West European economic arena. It is a member of OECD and has established a Customs Union with EU. It is also the member of some international, regional and sub-regional economic cooperation schemes such as Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), Middle East/North Africa Economic Conference (MENA), Southeastern Europe Cooperation Initiative (SECI), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank Group, UNCTAD, Economic Commission for Europe and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). Turkey is also an associate member of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU).

Agriculture accounts for about one-sixth of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about two-fifths of the workforce. Manufacturing employs about one-seventh of the workforce and accounts for one-fifth of the GDP.

Locally mined iron ore, coal, lignite, bauxite and copper provide raw materials for the country's key manufacturing industries. It also has huge deposits of chromites. Turkey is the Middle East's leading steel producer.

Summary Statistics

 

Region in UN

 

Western Asia

     
     

Surface area (sq km)

 

783562

     
     

Population (proj., 000)

2016

79622

     
     

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

103.5

     
     

Capital city

 

Ankara

     
     

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

4750

     
     

Currency

 

Turkish Lira (TRY)

     
     

ECO membership date

 

1964

   

 

 



Social indicators

 

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.7

 

Urban population (%)

2015

73.4

 

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

2.0

 

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

2.1

 

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

78.1/71.5

 

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

50

 

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

2964.9/3.8

 

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

39811

 

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

1985269

 

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

13

 

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

5.4

 

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.)

2013

1.7

2011

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

106.5/107.2

2013

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

98.7/101.8

2013

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

72.9/84.9

2013

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

4.3

2012

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

14.9

 
       

Republic of Uzbekistan

Republic of Uzbekistan is situated in the central and north‑western part of Central Asia in the inter-stream area of Amudarya and Syrdarya. In the north and north/west, Uzbekistan borders with Kazakhstan, in the east and south/east with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, in the south with Afghanistan and in the south west with Turkmenistan. By its total area 448,900 square km, Uzbekistan surpasses such European States as Belgium, Great Britain, Denmark, Switzerland and Austria taken together.

The population of Uzbekistan is 30.3 million people. In the Country there are the representatives of 130 nationalities, out of which the most numerous are Uzbeks (80 %), followed by Russians (5.5 %), Tajiks (5 %), Kazakhs (3.0 %), Karakalpaks (2.5 %), Tatars (1.5 %) and the others (2.5%). The average age of the population of Uzbekistan is 24 years. The official language is Uzbek. The Uzbeks speak the language, which belongs to the south‑east or Chagatai (Turkic) subgroup of the Turkic language family. The majority of population, especially urban people, has a command of the Russian language.

The most of the believers confess Islam (88 %). The Uzbeks are Muslims (Sunni).

According to the Constitution adopted in 1992, the Head of the State is the President elected on the basis of the universal and direct secret suffrage for the 5‑year period with the right of being reelected. The President is at the same time is Head of the high powered executive body - the Cabinet of Ministers. H.E. Shavkat Mirziyoyev is the current President of Republic of Uzbekistan.

The high legislative body of the country is the one- chamber Oliy Majlis (Parliament) with 250 deputies. The court system consists of the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and Higher Economic Court of Uzbekistan. The Supreme Court and High Economic Court of Uzbekistan are elected for 5 years. The regional, municipal and district courts are also elected for the same period.

Uzbekistan is one of the leading world producers of cotton. The Country occupies the 4th place in the world by producing cotton fiber and the 2nd place by its export. Also, the Country produces and exports a large volume of natural gas not only to the Central Asian and CIS countries but to Europe as well. The Republic manufactures machinery and equipment and has the powerful energetic system.

The transport system of the Country practically meets the domestic demands for transportation. In the Republic, there is the highest density in Central Asia of railways and motor-ways. Located in between Europe and Asia, the Republic serves as an international transport junction to provide for the passenger, cargo and transit air transportation.

Uzbekistan is an important region dealing with growing of astrakhan and silkworm. The Republic takes a leading place among the regional countries in the output of fruits, vegetables and grapes.

The Republic has big reserves of minerals. By copper reserves the Republic is in the 10‑11 place in the world, by reserves of uranium ‑ in the 7‑8 place. In the Country's subsoils there are huge reserves of oil and gas. About 60 % of the Country’s territory are prospective for their recovery. Uzbekistan possesses large reserves of coal as well.

The Republic is amongst the countries which possess the biggest resources of gold, silver and other precious and rare‑earth metals. It has its own silver deposits. Uzbekistan is rich in the reserves of non‑ferrous metals, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, rhenium and others. In the Country there are disposed deposits of marble, granite and gabbro. The Republic is rich in phosphorites and has the largest deposits of potash and rock salt.

 

Summary Statistics

Region in UN

 

Central Asia

Surface area (sq km)

 

447400

Population (proj., 000)

2016

30300

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

71.2

Capital city

 

Tashkent

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

2251

Currency

 

Uzbekistan Sum (UZS)

ECO membership date

 

28 November 1992



Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.5

 

Urban population (%)

2015

36.4

 

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.5

 

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

2.5

 

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

71.6/64.9

 

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

50

 

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

1170.9/3.9

 

Tourist arrivals at national borders (000)

2014

1969

2013

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

86821

 

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

44

 

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

5.8

 

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.)

2013

2.5

 

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

95.7/98.0

2011

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

94.9/95.9

2011

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

6.9/10.9

2011

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

3.2

2012

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

16.0

 
 

 

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is the second largest state in Central Asia, after Kazakhstan, and the most southern out of five Republics of the region. The Country is bordered by Kazakhstan in the northwest, Uzbekistan in the north and east, Afghanistan in south-east, Iran in the south as well as the Caspian Sea in the west. The area of Turkmenistan is 491,200 square kilometers. Most of its arid land is not good for animals and plant. Except oases located on narrow strips at the foot of Kopetdag Mountain and along Amudaria, Murgab and Tejen rivers, the rest of the territory is a desert. The great Cara-Cum canal of 1300 km long had affected the whole economic and social development of Turkmenistan for the last fifty years. This canal, supplied by natural flow without using pumping, was renamed as Cara-Cum river.

Turkmens are, and speak a language, belonging to the south-western or Oguz branch of Turkic linguistic group. Turkmens make 77% of the population against 66% in 1970 what is mainly due to a relatively high rate of birth. There are Russians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Tatars as well. The population is spread irregularly over the territory of the Country. Most of it lives in oases and its insignificant part lives in Karakum desert and in mountain area. Over 63% of ethnic Turkmen population live in rural area. Urban population mainly consists of Russian speaking migrants and their several generations born in Turkmenistan. In census of 1995 there was a question about speaking all other languages fluently, which means double reckoning on a good command of a language. Nowadays the share of Turkmen population in urban area has a tendency for growth.

In the process of economic development during Soviet time a large number of non-Turkmen skilled workers, engineers, technicians and other specialists moved to Turkmenistan. Besides, many ethnic Turkmens who were born and got higher education outside Turkmenistan, have returned to their native land.

Turkmenistan adopted its new Constitution in 1992, which replaced the Constitution of Soviet era that had been valid since 1978. New Constitution provides for legislative, executive and judiciary branches of the power, the executive branch playing a predominant role. One chamber parliament (Majlis) includes 50 delegates elected according to territorial districts on a 5-years basis. The President of the Country is elected for a maximum period of two consecutive 5-year terms. The current President of Turkmenistan is H.E. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow.

High courts of the country are Supreme Court and Supreme Arbitrage Court (for economic claims); judges hold office for five years and are appointed by the President. The People's Council (Khal Maslahaty) consists of the President, Members of the Parliament, regional representatives, chairmen of the supreme courts, cabinet and other officials. This Council is entitled to convene national referenda and approve their results, to plan and endorse political, economic and social policy and to declare war.

Turkmenistan represents mainly a desert country with nomadic cattle-breeding, intensive agriculture in arid areas and huge oil and gas resources. Half of irrigated land is involved in cotton cultivation making the country the tenth world cotton producer. Turkmenistan takes the fourth place in the world for gas resources and has considerable oil reserves as well. In Central Asia Turkmenistan is a leading silk cocoons’ producer which is mostly developed in middle Amudarya river’s oasis.

Major sectoral reforms of the country’s economy was completed by 1930 when old industries (such as cotton and oil processing and carpet-making) were continued and new industries (such as heavy and light as well as food production) were set up.

Oil deposits and related oil industries are concentrated in Caspian plain in the east of the Country and in the Caspian coast line to the west of Cheleken peninsula. Turkmen oil is of high quality both as a fuel and raw material for chemical industry. A pipeline network links oil deposits in the west of Turkmenistan to Ashkhabad, Turkmenbashi (Krasnovodsk), Cheleken as well as to central and northern regions of the Country.

In the perspective territories of the Central and Eastern Turkmenistan a rich oil deposits and the oil extracted from there along with condensate of the gas are refined at the Refining Plant of Seidy city which is located in the middle part of Amuderiya oasis. The extracted oil and gas condensate of Turkmenistan have one of the top ranges in the form of fuel oil, as well as raw material for its processing. The network of the natural gas pipelines has been developed enough and now covered the demand of the Turkmenistan’s population by gas. Moreover, the transcontinental Central Asia Centre Gas Pipeline, which has been laid from the territory Eastern and Western Turkmenistan, will stimulate the prospecting development of the huge hydro-carbon reserves.

Turkmenistan’s land as well as sea mineral wealth contain the huge reserves of natural gas, oil, iodine, bromine, sulphur, potassium and different mineral salts.

 
Summary Statistics

Region in UN

 

Central Asia

Surface area (sq km)

 

488100

Population (proj., 000)

2016

5439

Pop. density (per sq km)

2016

11.6

Capital city

 

Ashgabat

Capital city pop. (000)

2015

746

Currency

 

Turkmenistan New Manat (TMT)

ECO membership date

 

28 November 1992



Social indicators

 Population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.3

Urban population (%)

2015

50.0

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

2010-2015

1.9

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

2010-2015

2.3

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

2010-2015

69.7/61.3

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

2015

48

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

mid-2015

196.4/3.7

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

mid-2015

7171

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

2010-2015

47

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

2.1

Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

2014

3.1

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

88.6/90.1

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

83.7/86.9

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

2014

6.2/9.7

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

2014

4.3

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

2016

25.8

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